>
A
Table of Contents
*
A)
Table of Contents
*
B)
Principles
*
C)
1NT Opening
*
D)
Minor suit openers
*
E)
Major Suit Openers
*
F)
Strong Openings
*
G)
Preemptive openings
*
H)
Slam Bidding
*
I)
2♢ Opening
*
J)
Competitive auctions
*
K)
Low level (below game) doubles
*
L)
Jump Shifts
*
M)
Leads
*
N)
Carding
*
O)
To discuss
*
P)
Adam to review before playing
>
B
Principles
*
1)
Every bid should have a well-defined meaning.
*
2)
We should preserve room to explore as much as possible with our good hands, and take space away from the opponents when we have a good fit and less defensive strength. Jumps should tend to be picture bids.
*
3)
The balanced hand principle: When one hand has defined itself as balanced with a limited range of values, the other hand is the captain, and the balanced hand should do its best to stay out of the way. This principle is a subset of one that I discovered, "the less-defined hand principle". Using transfer bids is one of the very best ways of observing these principles.
*
4)
It is better to slightly lie about strength, if it enables you to give an excellent description of your shape. That is, if you can hope to give a much better description of your hand, you should be willing to either overbid OR underbid by a small amount.
*
5)
Anchoring the auction as early as possible will virtually always lead to a more comfortable auction. This allows us to share captaincy, which enables both players to offer meaningful input as to where we belong. Bids that allow us to show trump support are especially useful. Support partner as soon as reasonably possible.
*
6)
When no bid fits particularily well, we should tend to "default" to a bid that is both cheaper to show, and suggests a reasonably attractive strain.
*
7)
Singletons and voids are often crucial features of a hand. We need to be able to show them in as many auctions as possible.
*
8)
When there is doubt over the meaning of a bid, we should tend to assume natural rather than artificial, non-forcing rather than forcing, and telling rather than asking.
*
9)
Most bids of 2NT in competition are for takeout
*
10)
Return to suit is weakest in competition
V
>
C
1NT 12-14 (Could be excellent 11 or terrible 15)
C
No five card major unless xxxxx, usually no six card minor, usually not 5422.
>
1)
2♣ = Stayman
V
a)
2♢ No major
*
i)
2♡ = pass with equal length or longer ♡ -- correct to 2♠ with 3♠ and 2♡
*
ii)
2♠ = INV, not 5332
*
iii)
2N = INV with a 4-card major
*
iv)
3m = GF, 5+, promises a 4-card major
*
v)
3M = Natural, not Smolen
*
vi)
4♣ = Gerber
*
vii)
4♢ = Undefined
*
viii)
4M = signoff, must be 6-4
V
b)
2M = Natural, better Major first
*
i)
2♠ over 2♡ = 5 card inv, not 5332
*
ii)
2N = INV with 4OM
*
iii)
3m = 5+ with a 4 card major, normally OM
*
iv)
3M = INV
V
v)
Modified BAZE
V
1)
3OM = shortness somewhere
*
1.1)
Relay asks for shortness by steps
*
2)
4♣ = balanced slam try with 2 of top 4 trump honors
*
3)
4♢ = balanced slam try without 2 of top 4 trump honors
*
4)
4OM = RKCB
*
5)
4N = INV with 4OM
*
c)
Stayman followed by 5N is forcing, looking for the best slam, perhaps trying to stay out of a weak 4-4 fit.
>
2)
2♢ = ♡ or 44(41) or 544 GF
V
a)
2♡ = not pre-accept. Does not deny four trump.
>
i)
2♠ "Forces" 2N
V
1)
2N
*
1.1)
3m = Natural invite
*
1.2)
3♡ = Invite with both Majors (5-5 or longer)
V
1.3)
3♠ = 4-4-4-1 (or 544) GF
*
1.3.1)
Need not be a slam try
V
1.4)
3N = 4-4-1-4 (or 544) NF (and GF)
*
1.4.1)
Mnemonic for Adam -- This is the opposite of numeric: higher bids show lower numbers.
*
1.4.2)
Alternatively, lower bids are short in the lower ranking suit.
V
1.5)
4X = Natural, 544 with short ♢ (4♢ = 4-4-1-4), too strong for 3N
*
1.5.1)
Some would play this forcing to slam -- we do not.
*
1.5.2)
4♢ = 4-4-1-4, small singleton diamond
*
1.5.3)
4N = 4-4-1-4, singleton diamond honor, NF but very strong.
V
2)
3♡ = I would accept any game try
*
2.1)
4♡ = Game if we make it
*
2.2)
Other bids = unchanged, as if opener had bid 2♠
*
ii)
3♠, 4m = SPL
*
iii)
4♡ = To play
*
iv)
4♠ = Kickback
*
v)
4N = Natural invite
V
b)
2♠ = Pre-accept. Four trump, more than a minimum.
*
i)
2N = game (or slam) try, short ♠
*
ii)
3m = short suit game (or slam) try
*
iii)
3♡ = signoff
V
iv)
3♠, 3N = 4441 slam try., after which he can bid 4♠ as RKCB
*
1)
4♣ is idle and might as well be a general slam try with no shortness.
*
2)
4♢ to transfer to 4♡ (now 4♠ is RKCB)
*
3)
4♡ is a signify
*
v)
Similar when opener pre-accepts after a transfer to 2♠, though without the 4441 possibilities.
*
vi)
Note that we use retransfers only in pre-accept auctions or when they double.
*
c)
2N, 3m: Not possible
>
3)
2♡ = ♠
>
a)
2♠ = No pre-accept
*
i)
2N = 5332 game try
*
ii)
3m = GF
*
iii)
3♡ = GF, 5-5 or longer
*
iv)
3♠ = Invite
*
v)
3N = Choice of games, usually 5332
*
vi)
4m, 4♡ = SPL, usually 6331 or 7321
>
b)
2N Any pre-accept
*
i)
3x = SSGT
*
ii)
3♠ = signoff
*
iii)
3N, 4m = cue, slam try (3N = ♠cue)
*
iv)
4♡ = XFR
*
v)
4♠ = signoff
*
c)
3♠ = Pre-accept, don't care about any SSGT
>
4)
2♠ = Range ask or clubs
V
a)
2N = min, 3♣ = max
*
i)
3♣ = Signoff
*
ii)
3♢, 3M = Shortness
*
iii)
3N = To play, shows clubs over 2N
*
iv)
4♣ = Forcing, natural, no shortness
*
v)
4♢ = Kickback
*
b)
If they double, P = min, 2N = max with spade stop, 3c = max with no spade stop, XX = ♠
>
5)
2N = ♢
V
a)
3m : 3♣ = accept, 3♢ = reject
*
i)
3M, 4♣ = Shortness
*
ii)
3N = To play over 3♣, club shortness over 3♢.
*
iii)
4♢ = Forcing, natural, no shortness
*
iv)
4♡ = Kickback
*
v)
4♠ = 5♠, 6♢, NF
*
vi)
4N = Natural invite, no shortness so 6322 or 7222.
*
6)
3♣ = minors, s/o
V
>
7)
3♢ = 1444 or 4144, could also be 544
7)
With a five card Major responder will transfer to it over 3N, so he should have at least a solid game force.
V
a)
3♡ = Asks
V
i)
3♠ 4144
V
1)
This wrong-sides 4♠. Tough! They may be best off with a trump lead anyway.
*
1.1)
Can't be worth worrying about, since this auction has never come up.
*
ii)
3N 1444 NF (and GF)
V
iii)
Higher bids = Natural, short spades, too strong for 3N
*
1)
4x = 5 card suit
*
2)
4♠ = small spade singleton
*
3)
4N = singleton spade honor
>
8)
3M = SPL
*
a)
(31)-(54) or (21)-5-5 or (30)-5-5
*
9)
3N = To play
*
10)
4♣ = Gerber
*
11)
4♢ = Force to 6N - Baron
*
12)
4M = Signoff
>
13)
4N = INV
*
a)
P or bid 4 card suits up the line, jump in a good 5-carder
*
14)
5m = Signoff
*
15)
5N = Undefined. If it comes up it's an invite to 7.
>
16)
Competitive auctions
>
a)
They double 1N
V
i)
They double for penalties
>
1)
Tame Runouts:
V
1.1)
Pass To Play
XX To Play
2m To Play, could be other hands
2M To Play
2♣ followed by redouble = 4441 with 4♣
2♢ followed by redouble = 4-4-4-1
2♣ followed by 2♢ = 4♢ + 4M
2m followed by 2♡ = 4♡ + 4♠
With 4-4 in the Majors responder can start with either minor. He may want to bid his 3-card minor in case he's not doubled, or he may want to bid 2♣ to make it easier for the opponents to come in.
4432 with four clubs: Guess what to do -- no system bid is available. Consider treating it as a 4441. More science is possible here, for instance:
V
1.1.1)
1N (X) 2♣! (X)
P P 2♢ (X or P)
*
Opener can bid 2♡ with 4♡ but not 4♠, and XX with equal length in the majors, say 3=3=2=5 or 4=4=3=2. That can help if responder is groping with something like 4-3-2-4 or even 4-3-3-3.
>
2)
XX followed by double (by either player) is for penalties
V
2.1)
Pass followed by double (by either player) is for takeout
*
2.1.1)
Same over balancing doubles
*
3)
2M = Natural, to play
>
4)
2N
*
4.1)
minors signoff, or any 2-suited GF
*
5)
3X = Preemptive
V
ii)
They double artificial
*
1)
Our structure is the same as if it were a penalty double, except possibly for cue-bids.
*
2)
If we bid a suit they've promised four or more of it's a cue-bid showing shortness.
V
3)
If opener doubles a "pass or correct" bid it's for takeout
*
3.1)
e.g. 1N (Dbl) P (2♣ pass or correct) Dbl
>
b)
They overcall directly
>
i)
They overcall 2♣ natural or semi-natural, Including 2♣ = ♣ + another suit
*
1)
Dbl = Neg, usually at least two clubs
*
2)
3♣ = short clubs, not GF
>
3)
Everything else = Front of card
*
3.1)
2♠ followed by a bid showing clubs is unchanged, exposing the possible psyche or (more likely) misexplanation.
>
ii)
They overcall 2♣, any single suiter, or multiple possibilities
*
1)
Same as if 2♣ were natural, except that 3♣ is a signoff with both minors, as over a 1N opening.
>
iii)
They overcall 2♢, 2♡, or 2♠ natural or semi-natural, Including 2♢ = ♢ + another suit
V
1)
Dbl = Negative, usually at least 2 cards in their suit
*
1.1)
Opener is expected to pass with four trump
*
1.2)
Dbl followed by a cue shows 4OM balanced with no stopper
*
2)
Cue = Shortness, GF over 2♢, not GF over 2M, 3M promises 4OM
*
3)
2X = Natural, to play
V
4)
2N+ = Transfer Lebensohl:
V
4.1)
2N forces 3♣, similar to old fashioned lebensohl
*
4.1.1)
2N followed by a suit lower than theirs is a signoff
V
4.1.2)
2N followed by a suit higher than theirs shows clubs with the suit bid
*
This is still true if they bid over 2N, e.g., 1N (2♡) 2N (3♡) P (P) 3♠ A double would show shortness w/o 4♠.
V
4.1.3)
2N followed by a cue-bid is shortness without 4OM, GF
V
i.e. both minors, 5-4 or longer
*
Or ♣ with short ♢ over 2♢
*
4.1.4)
2N followed by 3N shows a stopper. It could be as little as Jxx, but opener always passes. With Qx responder guesses whether or not to show a stopper based on the rest of his hand.
V
4.2)
3♣ shows diamonds, invite or better
*
4.2.1)
When followed by a cue-bid it shows shortness
*
4.3)
3♢ shows hearts, invite or better
*
4.4)
3♡ shows spades, invite or better
V
4.5)
3♠ shows clubs, GF
*
4.5.1)
3N = I don't like my hand for clubs (confirm with Doug)
V
4.6)
Except that a cue-bid shows shortness, as above.
V
4.6.1)
A transfer into their suit shows the next suit up, invite or better. In other words we transfer through their suit.
*
So if they've bid a Major, 3♢ always shows the other Major
V
If they've bid 2♢ naturally then 3♣ shows ♡
*
To Do: Consider playing 3♣ as Stayman with shortness here, to leave room for Smoler
V
4.7)
3N denies a stopper and denies shortness
*
4.7.1)
Without a stopper of his own opener bids naturally
*
4.8)
4m undefined
*
4.9)
4M, 5m = To play
*
4.10)
We have no way to show 5-5 in the minors with shortness in the other major. Tough!
>
iv)
They overcall with a transfer or Astro, or, more generally, with a bid at the 2-level that promises a known higher ranking suit and is ambiguous about other suits
*
1)
We bid as over natural overcall, including transfers at the three level
*
2)
Dbl = Neg, at least two cards in their anchor suit
>
3)
Cue (accept the transfer) = short in their suit, competitive, often 4441
*
3.1)
With a GF we'd cue at the 3-level, either directly or after going through 2N
>
4)
Pass followed by Dbl = penalty double of overcaller's first suit
*
4.1)
Takeout of the suit doubled if they’ve bid a new suit. Opener will tend to pass unless short.
>
v)
They overcall with a bid, one possibility of which is a transfer
>
1)
Same defense as to transfers, except that a cue-bid is natural and we can transfer into their suit at the three-level.
*
1.1)
That means we have no way to show shortness with a cue-bid. That's OK! We can double, takeout of their anchor suit, and then not sit if opener doubles their anchor suit at the two level.
*
2)
Except that if they're overcalled 2♣ then we play front of card.
>
vi)
They overcall 2♢, Multi
*
1)
Front of card, starting with Dbl = ♡
*
2)
Pass followed by Dbl by either player is for takeout
*
3)
Pass followed by a cue at the 3-level is Stayman with shortness
*
4)
1N (2♢) P (2♡) X = T/O
>
vii)
They bid 2m to show both majors, e.g. Landy, Ripstra, Capelletti
V
1)
We use the Kaplan defense:
*
1.1)
Dbl = Want to penalize at least one major.
V
1.2)
Pass followed by double = negative: opener passes with four trump. Could also be good balanced: Manfield "I've got a secret"
*
1.2.1)
If opener pulls this double to 2NT it's natural
*
1.3)
2M = stopper, invite or better
*
1.4)
2N = Natural, minor suit oriented because no attempt to penalize opps
*
1.5)
3m = competitive, limited by failure to double or cue
*
1.6)
3M = SPL, could be, say, 6-3 in the minors.
*
1.7)
3N = To play -- does not show or deny stoppers
>
viii)
They overcall 2♡=Majors
V
1)
Double = negative, passable: promised at least a doubleton in each Major
*
1.1)
Pass followed by a double of 2♠ = penalties
*
2)
2♠ = Transfer to clubs with pre-accept
*
3)
2N = Transfer to diamonds with pre-accept
*
4)
3♣ = both minors competitive
*
5)
3♢ = both minors forcing
*
6)
3M = SPL
*
7)
3N = To play
>
ix)
They overcall 2N
*
1)
3♣ = Stayman - no Smolen
*
2)
3d, 3H = Transfer, INV+
*
3)
3S = ♣
>
x)
They overcall 3c
*
1)
3 suit transfers, INV+
>
xi)
They overcall 3d
*
1)
3H = S INV+, 3S = H GF
>
xii)
Negative doubles through 3♠
*
1)
2+ trump at the 2 level, 1+ trump at the 3 level.
>
xiii)
They overcall 4m
*
1)
4N is to play with length, usually 6 cards, in the other minor.
>
xiv)
They overcall 4M
*
1)
4N is for takeout
>
c)
They double Stayman showing clubs
*
i)
Redouble is natural with 5 decent clubs
*
ii)
2d is natural, does not deny a club stopper
V
iii)
2M does not deny a club stopper
*
1)
Now 3♣ asks for one
*
iv)
3♣ (rare) shows both majors. Now responder can play the hand.
>
d)
They double Stayman showing cards
*
i)
Opener should only pass or redouble (natural with good clubs) -- they may have just made a big mistake.
*
ii)
Responder's double = PEN
>
e)
They balance with a natural bid (4 cards or longer)
*
i)
Our doubles of natural bids are for takeout by either player
*
f)
Opener's doubles of artificial minor suit bids are for business (as above)
>
g)
They double Jacoby
*
i)
If opener completes the transfer he promises at least three trump. Passing shows a doubleton trump.
V
ii)
Responder's redouble is a retransfer
V
1)
Now if responder bids a new suit it's a signoff, to play a 5-3 or better instead of a 5-2.
*
1.1)
Probably best not to bid the doubler's suit if they claim the double is natural!
*
2)
Responder's other bids are unchanged, except for a cue-bid which is undefined but probably a 544 GF if they claim the double is natural.
>
h)
They bid over Stayman
*
i)
Both Opener's and Responder's doubles are for penalties
>
D
Minor suit openers
*
1)
With 4-4 in the minors we normally open 1♢
V
>
2)
1♣ 1♢
2)
With 5♢ and 4♣ generally respond 1♢, no matter what the strength of the hand.
Opener will almost never skip over a major to rebid 2♣
>
a)
1M
*
i)
1N = 6-10 or so, not 9-11 as in KSU.
*
ii)
2m = natural, NF
*
iii)
2OM = 4SGF
*
iv)
2M = mild invite
*
v)
2N = INV
*
vi)
3♣ = INV
*
vii)
3♢ = INV
*
viii)
3M = INV
*
ix)
3OM = SPL (in support of M)
>
b)
1N
*
i)
2♣ forces opener to bid 2♢. Responder's rebids between 2♡ and 3♢ are
invitational. Thus:
Pass to play 2♢
2♡ or 2♠ = 4-card suit, only 4 diamonds, not forcing
Opener should consider raising with 4-card support, even with a minimum.
2NT is a raise to 2NT with 5 or more diamonds.
3♣ is invitational
3♢ is 6+ diamonds invitational
3♡ and 3♠ show a singleton or void with 6 or more diamonds, GF.
3NT is a mild slam try with long diamonds.
4NT is a serious slam try with 5 or more diamonds.
*
ii)
2♢ is a GF. Opener bids his cheaper 4-card major if he has one, otherwise normally 2NT. Subsequent bidding is all natural, subject to responder's having denied certain hands.
V
iii)
2♡ and 2♠ are natural, non-forcing invitational bids, showing 4 of the
suit bid and 5 or more diamonds.
*
1)
Opener should consider raising with 4-card support, even with a minimum.
*
iv)
2NT is invitational.
*
v)
3♣ is to play.
*
vi)
3♢ shows a GF with 6 or more diamonds and at most one club.
*
vii)
3♡ and 3♠ show shortness, normally 5 or more diamonds and exactly four clubs.
(with 5 clubs responder would have splintered initially).
V
viii)
1♣ 1♢
1N 2♣
2♢ 2♡
*
1)
Without 4♡ opener bids 2♠ with 4 spades, 3♠ with 17 and 4♠, or naturally
V
c)
2N
V
i)
3c shows diamond length and forces 3d
V
1)
3d
*
1.1)
3M = shortness
*
1.2)
3N = short clubs, NF
*
1.3)
4c = short c, forcing
V
ii)
3d asks for 4-card major
V
1)
With 4-4 opener bids his stronger
*
1.1)
With a slam try and support responder bids the other major, as over Stayman
*
iii)
3M = shortness with 4+ clubs
V
d)
3M
*
i)
SPL, good hand but not GF.
V
3)
1♢ 2♣ is a game force opposite a strong NT.
>
a)
2♢ unbalanced minimum. Forcing for 1 round.
*
i)
Any other rebid by opener shows at least a sound 15 count and is a game force (but see 1♢ 2♣ 3♣ below.)
*
ii)
2M = GF
*
iii)
2N, 3♣, 3♢ all NF
*
iv)
3M = SPL, GF, 4 card support because no first round SPL
*
b)
2M = Values in M. Forcing to game.
*
c)
2N = GF -- we cannot stop in 4m.
V
d)
3♣ forcing to 4♣
*
i)
For example:
x xx AKJxx Axxxx opposite
Kxx Kxx xxx KJxx.
1♢ - 2♣ - 3♣ - 3NT - 4♣ - pass.
>
4)
1m 1M
*
a)
1m 1♡
1♠ 3om = INV
V
b)
1♢ 1M
2♣ 3OM = SPL
*
i)
Responder has no way to invite with 5-5 in the majors
>
c)
1m 1M
2m
*
i)
2♢, 2♡ = F1, INV+
*
ii)
2M = primarily corrective
*
iii)
3♢, 3OM (jumps) = SPL
*
iv)
3M = INV
>
d)
Opener's jump reverses are mini (or maxi) splinters.
*
i)
Usually 18-19 support points with shortness.
*
ii)
Occasionally a hand too strong for a GF splinter -- will drive to the five level if responder goes on to game over the presumed 18-19.
>
e)
Reverses
V
i)
The fourth suit or 2N is waiting, whichever is cheaper
*
1)
It usually denies a 5th trump, but 1♣ 1♠ 2♢ 2♡ could have a 5th spade, perhaps planning on passing if opener bids 2♠
*
2)
After a waiting bid responder can sign off in ♢, e.g., 1♣ 1♠ 2♡ 2N 3♣ 3♢. This is rare -- responder needs six good diamonds and short clubs.
*
ii)
When 2N is more expensive than the 4th suit it's natural and shows 8-11 HCP, or 15+
*
iii)
Opener's bid of the 4th suit is an artificial GF
>
5)
1m 1N = 5+ to 8 HCP (could easily be a poor 9)
*
a)
2R = Natural, F1
*
b)
3R = self SPL, forcing to 3N or 4m
>
6)
1m 2m
>
a)
4+ trump, usually 9+ HCP
V
i)
Can be less with some shape or a fifth trump:
*
1)
A minimum over 1♢: Txx x KJxx Axxxx
V
2)
xx xx KTxx KJxxx over
*
2.1)
9.90 K&R points
*
2.2)
OK over 1♣, not quite enough over 1♢
*
3)
xxx xxx xx AKxxx
*
b)
FG when opener holds a strong NT
V
c)
Opener's 2N rebid = FG, ostensibly 15-17
*
i)
Doug explains this as 15-19, but Adam is likely to hold 15-17.
*
ii)
3M = shortness, exactly 4-card support since no original SPL
V
d)
Opener's new suit is forcing to 3N or 4m
V
i)
Opener rebids 2♡ with
*
1)
x
AQJx
KQxxx
xxx
*
2)
It's minimum in high cards, and 13.80 CCCCs, but only six losers.
*
ii)
Over opener's new suit responder should bid 2NT (3NT over 3♣) or 3m with a minimum raise.
*
e)
3N shows 18-19 HCP with exactly 3 cards in m
>
7)
1m 2H = 9-10 balanced
V
a)
2S forces 2N
*
i)
Now suits are natural and GF
*
b)
2N is intended as a signoff
*
c)
3c and 3m are signoffs
*
d)
Bids above 3m show shortness, GF
>
8)
1m 3M or 1♣ 3♢ or 1♢ 4♣
*
a)
SPL, e.g. 10+ HCP
V
b)
x AKx xxxx Kxxxx
*
i)
opposite, say, Qxx x Kxxx AQJxx
*
ii)
xxx xx AQx AQ9xx
*
c)
Forcing to 4m
*
d)
With kickback
>
9)
Transfer checkback
>
a)
1m 1♡ 1N
V
i)
2♣ forces opener to bid 2♢. After 2♣ responder's bids are as follows:
*
1)
2♡ is invitational with 5 or more hearts and an unbalanced hand.
2♠ is invitational with 4-4 in the majors.
2NT is invitational with 5 hearts, balanced.
3♣ is invitational, with club support if partner opened 1♣, otherwise probably 4♡ and 6♣.
3♢ is invitational, probably 5-5 if the opening was 1♣.
(With an invitational strength hand with 5-5 in hearts and clubs after 1♢ - 1♡ - 1NT, responder bids 2♣ and follows with 2♡.)
3♡ is invitational with 6 or more hearts.
3♠ and 3NT are undefined. If Adam bids 3N it means he's 5332 and offering a choice of games, and he forgot he should start with a transfer.
You (Adam) don't want to know about 3♠ and 3NT yet (single-suited slam tries with a singleton or void somewhere, depending upon the bid).
4♣ (3M+3) shows a self-splinter, short in ♠, with good trump.
4♢ and 4♡ show slam tries with 6 or more ♡ and no shortness. 4♡ is a mild slam try, typically no more than 15 HCP, and 4♢ is a serious slam try. Both show good trumps. As a rough guide 'good trumps' means at least three of the top five. Opener with a doubleton honor should not be concerned about the possibility of two trump losers. Responder should pay particular attention to the jack and ten, which will not show up with RKCB.
V
ii)
2♢ is a transfer to 2♡, which opener must accept. Afterward responder bids 2♠ to show 46 invitational, and higher bids to show GF with five or more hearts.
*
1)
2NT is a balanced GF, but concern about notrump, generally a very good five-card suit.
*
2)
3♣, 3♢ are natural, GF.
V
3)
3♡ is GF with six broken hearts, offering a choice of games.
*
3.1)
This bid is used for hands that don't know whether to play in 3NT or 4M, holding a six-card major. Usually with a six-card major, you would just bid 4 of the major with no slam interest. This bid allows you to avoid 4M, when 3NT would be better. I don't think that it needs a precise definition, but I think that 'lacking three of the top 5 honors in the suit' would be a good choice, if we made one. Of course, opener could cue bid on the way to 4M with an appropriate hand.
*
3.2)
Opener will choose 3N when he is concerned about going down in 4♡ with trump losers but plenty of tricks outside.
*
4)
3NT is a pure choice of games, balanced hand and moderate hearts.
*
5)
Jumps to 3♠ and 4m are self-splinters without three of the top five trump honors.
*
6)
4♡ is a balanced slam try with 6 or more decent hearts, but not three of the top five trump honors.
V
iii)
2♡ is a GF, asking opener if he has four spades, but not necessarily showing four spades. Opener bids 2♠ with four, and 2NT otherwise.
*
1)
Responder's follow-ups are natural, a 3♡ bid over 2N shows 4-5 in the majors, GF. Opener's 3♠ is last train, concerned about the 4th suit. Responder's 3♠ shows 5-6. Responder's 3N over 2♠ is a 4-4-3-2 choice of games, with a doubleton in opener's minor. Responder's 3m denies a 5th heart unless he's 45(04).
*
2)
Responder might bid 2♡ without four spades if he had a balanced hand
with slam interest, typically with four card support (five card support if 2452) for opener's minor.
*
iv)
2♠ is invitational with 45 in the majors.
*
v)
2NT is invitational with four hearts (and not four spades).
*
vi)
3♣ is to play.
*
vii)
3♢, 3♡, and 3♠ show GF with support for m. 3♢ shows shortness in om, 3♡ shows short spades and four m, 3♠ shows short spades and 5m. Responder can hold 4 or 5 hearts.
*
viii)
4♣ and 4♢ are self-splinters showing singletons with good trump (3 of the top 5).
>
b)
1m 1♠ 1N
*
i)
Transfer checkback after a 1♠ response is similar to that after a 1♡ response.
V
ii)
2♣ is a puppet to 2♢, showing either a diamond signoff, some invitational hand, or a slam try (or better) with a long spade suit. Responder's bid over the forced 2♢ is invitational and natural if it is 3♠ or lower.
V
1)
2♠ shows an unbalanced invitation.
*
1.1)
2N = Maximum, no spade fit
*
1.2)
3X = spade support with values in X
*
2)
2NT shows a balanced invitation with 5 spades.
*
3)
3N and 4♣ do not exist (yet -- see 1m 1♡ 1N above)
*
4)
4♢, 4♡ and 4♠ are slam tries, analogous to those over a 1♡ response (♡ SPL, BAL strong INV good trump, BAL mild INV good trump).
*
iii)
2♢ is a transfer to hearts. Unless responder is 6-4 in the majors, he has either a signoff or a game force, NOT an invitational hand. Opener bids 2♠ over 2♢ unless he has more hearts than spades, in which case he bids 2♡. If responder bids 2♠ over 2♡, he has a game-invitational 6-4 hand. Otherwise, his bid is a natural game force.
*
iv)
2♡ forces opener to bid 2♠ (i.e. a transfer). Responder has a signoff or a game force. Over opener's forced 2♠, responder's bids from 2NT through 3NT are natural GF, and all show at least 5 spades. 2NT suggests a good spade suit, and some doubt about NT. 3♠ shows a broken 6-card suit, and interest in playing in notrump. 3NT is a pure choice of games, some 5332 and normally a moderate suit. Jumps show self-splinters without 3 of the top 5 trump honors.
*
v)
2♠ is a game force with EXACTLY four spades. Opener is required to bid 2NT, and responder will describe his hand further. He would typically have a balanced hand, perhaps with support for opener. It is possible that if the opening bid was 1♢, he might have long clubs, but was not good enough to bid 2♣ initially.
*
vi)
2NT is an invitational raise with no major suit interest.
*
vii)
3♣ is to play.
*
viii)
3♢, 3♡, and 3♠ are splinters with support for partner's minor. 3♢ shows shortness in the other minor, 3♡ and 3♠ show short hearts, with 3♡ showing 4-card support and 3♠ promising at least 5-card support.
*
ix)
3NT and 4♠ are signoffs.
*
x)
4m is a self-splinter with good spades (nominally 3 of the top 5).
V
xi)
4♡ is a natural slam try, 6-5-1-1.
*
1)
4N over 4♡ is RKCB for hearts
V
c)
On in comp when responder has bid freely, or when he's made a negative double of a 1♠ overcall.
*
i)
1m (1♠) Dbl (P) 1N (P ) 2♡ = FG, denies a fifth heart. 2♠ does not exist. If bid it's FG with 4♡ and spade values.
*
ii)
On even if we have a cue-bid available. On even after 1m (1♡) 1♠ (P) 1N.
>
10)
2N rebids
V
a)
1m 1M 2N
V
i)
3♣ Forces 3♢ (on in comp)
*
1)
P Signoff
*
2)
3♡ Signoff, either with ♡ or both Majors
*
3)
3♠ Signoff when M = ♠. 4-4 majors when M = ♡
*
4)
3N 5332 Choice of Games
>
5)
Higher bids = om, e.g.
*
5.1)
4om = 5M, 5om
*
5.2)
4m = 5431: 5M 4om 3m 1OM
*
5.3)
4N = 5M-2-2-4om INV
*
5.4)
We assume that with 4M and 5+om and a good hand responder would have responded in om. That leaves a hole when responder has something like a 4=0=3=6 ten count over a 1♢ opening. Tough! But please feel free to suggest something.
*
ii)
3♢ Support for m
*
iii)
3M Forcing, not 5332.
>
iv)
3OM Forcing, natural. 3♠ shows 4-5.
*
1)
Over 3♡ opener's 3♠ is noncommittal. He might have a doubleton honor in spades, either hoping to learn about a 5th heart or with a shaky stopper in the fourth suit.
*
v)
3N Signoff
*
vi)
4♣ Gerber
*
vii)
4♢ Undefined
*
viii)
4M Slam try, good trump
*
ix)
4♡ Slam try, picture bid (M = ♠)
*
b)
1♣ 1♢ 2N - described under 1♣ opening
*
11)
1♢ 1♠
2♢ 3♣ = GF
>
12)
Fourth Suit
V
a)
The fourth suit is forcing to game by an UPH. This includes 1♠.
*
i)
1♣ 1♢ 1♡ 2♠ does not exist. If it comes up it's a 56 GF with good suits.
*
b)
Natural, NF by a PH
>
13)
Competitive auctions
V
a)
Over doubles
V
i)
1♣ (X)
*
1)
Responses to 1♣ are slightly different in an effort to make opener
declarer when responder has a decent hand with support.
*
2)
XX = diamonds
*
3)
1♢ = hearts
*
4)
1♡ = spades
*
5)
1♠ = values for a 1NT response or better
*
6)
1NT = weak raise to 2♣ (6-8 HCP and four (or possibly 5 clubs if
balanced))
*
7)
2♣ = inverted raise
V
8)
2♢, 2♡, 2♠ = weak jump shifts - 3-5 HCP, at least 3 in the suit bid.
*
8.1)
A jump to 2M by a PH is a hand that was not suitable for a weak 2, for some unspecified reason.
*
9)
2NT = weak hand with 5+ clubs (2-5 HCP)
V
10)
3♣ = 6-8 HCP with 5 or more clubs -- a "mixed" raise.
*
10.1)
The reason for the switch is so that opener becomes declarer in 3NT when he has a good hand, and responder has some values.
*
11)
3♢, 3♡, 3♠ = splinters
V
ii)
1♢ (X)
*
1)
XX = hearts
*
2)
1♡ = spades
*
3)
1♠ = at least the values for a 1NT response
V
4)
1NT = transfer to clubs with a good hand (at least game invitational values)
*
4.1)
Responder can pass opener's 2♣
V
5)
2♣ = inverted raise of diamonds, forcing only to 2♢
*
5.1)
Now 3♢ = Non-Forcing, INV
*
6)
2♢ = weak raise of diamonds (typically four card support 6 to a poor 9 HCP). Not interested in game opposite a strong NT.
V
7)
2♡, 2♠, 2NT(= clubs) are weak jump responses.
*
7.1)
If responder is a passed hand he had some unspecified reason for not opening with a preempt
*
8)
3♣ = 6-8 HCP and five card or better support, a “mixed raise”
*
9)
3♢ = preemptive (five card support and 2-5 HCP)
*
10)
3♡, 3♠, 4♣ = splinters
V
b)
Over overcalls
*
i)
To Do: Check for duplication with the “we open 1 of a suit” section
V
ii)
A single raise is standardish: 4 trump, fewer than 9 HCP
*
1)
Opener's 2NT bid shows at least a good 17 count.
*
iii)
A jump raise is preemptive: no game opposite 15-17 balanced
*
iv)
A jump shift is strong by an UPH and fit showing by a PH.
*
v)
A cue-bid over an overcall shows the same hand as an inverted raise, and our structure is the same.
>
vi)
Opener's cue-bid of his LHO's suit is a reverse, in principle the same kinds of hands it could have been without the overcall. e.g.,
V
1)
1♣ (1♢) 1♠ (P)
2♢
*
1.1)
Shows ♢ values and promises a rebid.
*
1.2)
Responder rebids as over a reverse.
V
2)
1m (1♡) 1♠ (P)
2♡
*
2.1)
Shows ♡ values and promises a rebid.
*
2.2)
Similar to our reverse structure, but since 2♠ is always available 2N is natural, 8-11 or 15+.
>
vii)
Opener's cue-bid of RHO's suit shows a hand too strong to jump rebid his own suit
V
1)
e.g. 1m (P) 1♡ (1♠)
2♠
*
1.1)
Responder's 2N shows a stopper and is FG.
*
1.2)
Opener can pass responder's return to 3m, which denies a stopper
>
viii)
Strong NT double
*
1)
When responder has shown values opener's first double shows a strong NT or better. His pass below two of responder's suit shows an unbalanced hand.
*
2)
If they bid two of responder's suit opener must double with a strong NT, whether or not the cue-bid is natural. Opener will not double a natural cue with a singleton in responder's suit. His pass over a natural cue implies a singleton, with or without extra values, though he could be stuck with something like 5422.
*
3)
When an opponent has bid above two of responder's suit opener is allowed to pass with a minimum strong NT. So, although the pass at that level suggests an unbalanced hand, it does not guarantee one.
V
ix)
1m 1♡ (Dbl) P 1N P
*
1)
2m, 2om = s/o
V
2)
2♡, 2♠ = cue-bid, GF
*
2.1)
Concentration of values
*
3)
2N = Natural INV
*
4)
3m, 3om = Natural INV
*
5)
3♡ = SPL
*
6)
3♠ = Undefined
V
x)
1m (1♡) 1♠ shows 5+ ♠
V
1)
Now opener's raise to 2♠ still shows 15-17 HCP if balanced.
*
1.1)
With 4 trump and this strength opener should consider jumping to 3♠ unless the overcall devalued his ♡ holding. The ninth trump is big. With 18 or 19 HCP and 4 trump opener would presumably jump to game.
*
1.2)
Transfer checkback is on.
>
xi)
1♢ (2M) 3♣ (P) 3♢ = NF, an exception to the usual rule "new suit at the 3 level is GF".
*
1)
Passes are forcing if advancer bids over 3♣, but not after advancer passes and opener rebids 3♢
V
xii)
1♣ 1♢ Dbl shows at least 4-4 in the majors
*
1)
1♣ 1♢ Dbl P
1N P : Bids are natural and NF, 2♢ = GF
V
xiii)
1m 3♡ Dbl P
*
1)
4♡ = ♠ slam try
*
2)
4N = Good hand with both minors, usually 6-4
V
xiv)
Over either Major suit response
*
1)
In competition opener is more likely to raise with 3 cards, and responder’s bid of three of opener’s minor is forward going but non-forcing, usually with exactly four cards in his major.
V
xv)
1m P 1N
*
1)
Our doubles are penalty if we’ve opened 1c, takeout if we’ve opened 1d
*
2)
But note that responder’s doubles of natural bids of opener’s suit are always for takeout.
>
14)
Passed hand bidding
V
a)
Unchanged, except that a JS is fit showing
*
i)
A five-card suit, 4+ in opener's suit, and a hand that has been upgraded to an opening bid based on the fit. A one-round force.
>
E
Major Suit Openers
>
1)
1♡ 1♠
>
a)
1N = 12-14, usually exactly 2♠
*
i)
No checkback
*
ii)
2m, 2♠ = s/o
*
iii)
2♡ = INV
*
iv)
2N = INV
*
v)
3m, 3♡ = F
*
vi)
3♠ = INV
>
b)
2♠ - opener may raise freely with xxx
*
i)
2N = Natural, NF, usually only 4♠
V
ii)
3♣ = Artificial ask, OGUST style
*
1)
3♢ = minimum, 3 trump
*
2)
3♡ = maximum, 3 trump
*
3)
3♠ = minimum, 4 trump
*
4)
3N = 5422 maximum
*
5)
4x = shortness, 4 trump
*
iii)
3d = Natural game try, usually 5♠
*
iv)
3♡ = 3-card LR, INV.
>
c)
2N = 18-19, 2 or 3♠
*
i)
3x = 4 suit transfers (3♠ shows ♣, opener's 3N is no interest in ♣ or ♠)
3N Signoff
4♣ RKCB Gerber for responder’s suit - ♠
4♢ Undefined
4♡ Slam try, good trump
4♠ Slam try, good trump
V
d)
3♡ = good suit, good hand, usually ~5 losers
*
i)
4m = cue for ♡, 5m = SPL
V
>
2)
1M-1N: Semi-forcing
2)
Opener almost always bids. He passes only if he opened a 4-card major or a minimum (12 count) with a weak major, typically Kxxxx or worse. Responder can hold four weak spades after a 1H opening.
V
a)
Reverse Bart
V
i)
1H 1N 2c
V
1)
2d = artificial, 9+ HCP
V
1.1)
2H Nothing more to say
*
1.1.1)
2S Extra values, no clear call
*
2)
2H = 8 HCP or less, 2 or 3H (weaker if 3)
*
3)
2S = Club raise, stronger than 2d followed by 3c
*
4)
2N = INV, ~11
*
5)
3c = Light club raise, weaker than 2d followed by 3c
*
6)
3d = natural and weak
V
ii)
1S 1N 2c
V
1)
2d shows 5 or more hearts
*
1.1)
Opener bids 2H if he would have passed 2H, otherwise bids what he would have over 2H
*
2)
2H = artificial, 9+ HCP, fewer than 5H
*
3)
2S = 8 HCP or less, 2 or 3S (weaker if 3)
*
4)
2N = INV, ~11
*
5)
3c = Light club raise, weaker than 2H followed by 3c
*
6)
3d = natural and weak
>
b)
2m = 3+ (2♣ conceivably 4=5=2=2, but opener has other options)
>
i)
Jump to 3♢ or 3♡ or 4♣
*
1)
Artificial strong raise of m
*
2)
If m = clubs responder bids his strength, 3♢ with strength in both red suits
*
ii)
1M 1N 2m 2M 2N = 16+ to 17
*
c)
2M = 6+
>
d)
2♡ (m = ♠)
>
i)
4m = Cue bid for ♡ (an Ace), 3 working cards.
V
1)
In case opener has the right minimum, say xx KQxxx Axx xxx opposite AKxxxx Axxx xx x
*
1.1)
We do not want to risk going down in 5 with bad breaks when we have two top losers.
*
ii)
3N should be a cue for hearts showing the spade A or K! Responder cannot start a balanced GF with 1NT. But Doug has not yet agreed to this.
*
e)
1♡ 1N 2♡ 2♠ = both minors, 5-5 or longer, INV
>
f)
2♠ = 15+ HCP, NF (M = ♡)
V
i)
2N = F1, waiting, usually weak. INV if followed by 3♠.
*
1)
3♣ = 4513 or 4522 NF (at least 2 clubs)
*
2)
3♢ = 4531 NF
*
3)
3♡ = 46(12) NF
*
4)
3♠ = 56(any) NF
*
ii)
3m = GF
*
iii)
3♡ = GF, could be Hx or a three-card LR with poor trump. Opener's 3N is natural.
V
iv)
3♠ = F
*
1)
Occasionally a three-card suit. Opener's 3N is natural.
V
v)
4m = An ace. Cue-bid for either major, usually ♡.
V
1)
3 working cards, or perhaps two aces.
*
1.1)
Three working cards are unlikely for ♠, since with 4♠ responder tends not to hold 10 HCP.
*
1.2)
AKxx
AQJxxx
xx
x
Qxxx
Kx
Axxx
xxx
*
vi)
4♡ = 3 card LR good trump
*
vii)
4♠ = Good trump (say 2 of the top 3), three prime cards total, not good enough for 1♠ response, no minor suit ace to show. Rare!
>
g)
2N = 17+ to 19
*
i)
3m = s/o
*
ii)
3M = s/o
*
iii)
1♠ 1N 2N 3♡ = choice of games
*
iv)
1♡ 1N 2N 3♠ = 5-5 or longer in the minors, GF
>
h)
3m GF, usually 4+, could be a tripleton
V
i)
3M = Waiting, 2 or 3 M
*
1)
1♡ 1N 3m 3♠ = waiting, singleton ♡
*
ii)
3N = natural
*
iii)
3om, 4om = Natural
V
iv)
4m = constructive, 4+, suggests slam
*
1)
4♡ = Natural, 6♡s, usually only 3♢
*
2)
4♠ = Kickback
*
3)
4N = spade control
*
4)
5♣ = club control, denies spade control (m = ♢)
*
v)
4♡ = 3 card LR, good hearts - usually 2 of the top 4.
*
vi)
5♢ = Good diamonds, 5 to two honors, usually no side control.
>
i)
3M = Good suit, good hand, typically 5 losers
*
i)
Now new suits are cue-bids, including 4♡ over 3♠.
V
ii)
1♡ 1N
3♡ 3♠
*
A)
Cue, 3N is still a possible contract.
*
j)
1♡ 1N 3♠ = Nat, F, 5-6 or longer
>
k)
1♠ 1N 3♡
*
i)
3♠ - waiting
*
ii)
3N natural, stoppers in both minors
V
iii)
4m natural, forcing
*
1)
Could be an advance cue, wanting to focus on a missing control in the other minor
*
iv)
4♡ natural
*
v)
4♠ 3 card limit raise, trump not xxx, opener may bid
*
vi)
4N = RKCB for ♡
*
vii)
5♡ natural slam try
>
l)
3N - Ambiguous
*
i)
Could be 5332 20 count, unsuitable for 2N opening, or 4=5=2=2 20 count, or playing tricks with a solid suit.
*
m)
4m, 1♠ 1N 4♡ = self-splinter - void
>
3)
1M 2m = GF unless rebid, or opener's 2nd rebid
*
a)
2♢ = 4+♢, any strength
V
b)
2♡ by 1♠ opener = 4+ ♡, any strength
*
i)
2N = usually 12-15 HCP, 1 or 2♠, 2 or 3♡, stoppers
V
ii)
3N = 16-17, 2-3 in majors, double stops in each minor
*
1)
Opener can cue a king or a singleton
*
2)
Responder will assume ♡ are trump.
*
c)
2N = 14+ to 17
*
d)
3N = 18-19, 5332, doubleton m
*
e)
Reverse to 2♠ shows extra values, GF
V
f)
3 level bids, including raises, show extra values, usually 15+
*
i)
3m shows 3+ trump and could hold a small singleton if only 3 trump.
*
ii)
Opener's JS or JR is a splinter with four card support.
V
g)
These auctions are all GF:
*
i)
1M 2m 2N 3m
*
ii)
1M 2♢ 3♣ 3♢
*
iii)
1♡ 2m 2♠ 3m
V
h)
1M 2m 2M 4M
*
i)
Picture bid: Good 3-card support, say 2 of 4 top honors, good suit, usually 5332, could be 4432 (I hope not! AW) or 6322, no side A or K.
V
i)
1M 2m 2x 2M or 1M 2m 2M 3M
*
i)
Shows three trump, but 2M could be a strong doubleton if responder is strapped.
V
j)
1M 2m 2X 2M 4M
*
i)
Picture bid: 5422, good suits, no side A or K.
V
k)
1♠ 2m 2♡ 3N
*
i)
15-17 HCP, 2=3 in the majors, not great controls.
V
l)
1M 2x 3M
*
i)
4x = natural, long strong suit
*
ii)
4y = Cue for M
V
4)
1♠ 2♡
V
a)
Shows a good 9 count or more
*
i)
If only 9 then a six-card suit.
*
b)
Forcing to NT or a preference or a raise or responder's rebid or opener's second rebid
*
c)
1♠ 2♡
2♠ 3m = GF
>
d)
1♠ 2♡
2♠ 2N = NF
*
i)
3m, 3♠ = NF, weak
*
ii)
3♡ = GF
*
e)
1♠ 2♡
2N = NF
*
f)
1♠ 2♡
3♡ 3♠ = GF
*
g)
1♠ 2♡
2♠ 3♡ (NF)
3♠ = NF
>
5)
Jacoby 2N
*
a)
3X = singleton, does not promise extras
V
b)
3NT shows a good 14 to a fair 17, no shortness
*
i)
A six-card suit is worth a couple of points or so.
*
c)
3M is better than 3NT.
*
d)
4m = void, does not promise extra values
*
e)
We cannot play in 3N after responding 2N. 3N by either player shows some interest in slam, but not substantial extra values. May be hoping to hear 4♣.
*
f)
We bid naturally over interference.
V
g)
We have not yet agreed to play these:
*
i)
4M - 1 = 13+ to 14
*
ii)
4M = 11+ to 13-
>
6)
Single raise
V
a)
SSGT after 1M (P) 2M (P) -- always off in comp
*
i)
A raise of the 4th suit is a choice of games with four cards in the other major
V
ii)
1♠ 2♠
3♢ 3♡ (last train)
4♡
*
1)
We have no agreement.
Should be natural, 4+♡, choice of games.
*
iii)
1♠ 2♠
3♣ 3R = counter try, values in the suit bid
V
b)
1M 2M 3M = INV
*
i)
It's INV in competition too, so long as advancer has passed.
*
c)
1M 2M 2N = F1, no short suit I want to show
>
7)
Limit Raises
*
a)
Doug will always have four trump for a LR.
V
b)
Adam will occasionally hold three trump with a side singleton.
*
i)
e.g., KQx x KJxxx xxxx
V
c)
Mathe Asking Bids
*
i)
A relay asks for shortness. Responder shows his shortness, if any, by bidding it. A return to 4M denies side shortness. After 1♡ 3♡ 3♠, 3N shows short ♠.
V
8)
3N response
*
a)
Shows a good raise to 4M. Could be a light splinter. Does not set up a forcing pass. No special rebids by opener.
>
9)
Splinters
*
a)
Normally 11-14 HCP, could be a prime 10
*
b)
1♠ p 4♡ is a splinter
>
10)
PH Bidding
V
a)
P P 1M
*
i)
Third seat openers are hands that would at least CONSIDER opening the bidding in first or second seat (though perhaps only briefly). Any weaker than that, and we either open with a weak two-bid or pass. Thus, AQT9x xx xxx Axx is a 1♠ opening, but change the ace of clubs to the king, and we open 2♠.
A light opening bid will always be based upon a good suit, and is
likely to be able to rebid the suit comfortably, or pass any response.
With AQT9x x xxxx Axx opener must pass a 2♡ response, since 2♠ would be forcing.
*
ii)
3M response = 5 card LR
V
iii)
2♣ is Reverse Drury -- promises a fit, off in competition
V
1)
2♢ = Artificial, at least some game interest, unlimited
*
1.1)
2M = 3 trump
>
1.2)
2OM = 4 trump
V
1.2.1)
Opener's bids over 2M or 2OM are SSGT
*
2N = no shortness
*
3♡ = short in ♠ (M = ♡)
*
1.2.2)
1♠ 2♣ 2♢ 2♡ 2♠ = NF, seldom passed
*
1.3)
If responder bids beyond 2M his bid is natural and promises four trump. His hand type is constrained by his failure to make a fit showing jump on the first round -- he will not hold a pure 2-suiter with nine cards in the two suits.
>
2)
2♡ = Natural, at least some game interest, unlimited, F1 (M = ♠)
*
2.1)
2♠ = usually only 3 trump
*
2.2)
Higher bids imply 4♠ except for 3♡ (natural invite) and 4♡
V
3)
2M = Signoff
V
3.1)
If responder bids he shows shortness with 4+ trump. 2N = undefined.
*
3.1.1)
Note that responder can show shortness only over opener’s attempted signoff.
*
4)
Higher bids = Natural GF, choice of games or slam try
*
5)
4M = Signoff
*
iv)
3♣ is natural and invitational
*
v)
Other jump shifts show a fit, at least nine cards in the two suits
*
vi)
2N shows a club fit
*
b)
Jump shift shows fit except 3c = natural invite and 2N shows club fit.
>
11)
Competitive auctions
>
a)
Over doubles
V
i)
Transfers, starting with XX
*
1)
Forcing to NT or preference or responder's rebid or opener's second rebid.
*
2)
Responder can pass if opener completes the transfer.
*
ii)
1♠ (over 1♡) = values for a 1NT response
*
iii)
2♢ = hearts, 3-card limit raise or better over 1♡ opening, KS standard 2♡
response over a 1♠ opening
*
iv)
2M = normal 3-card raise (typically 6-9 support points)
*
v)
2N = LR+
*
vi)
3M = PRE: <7 support points, four trump
*
vii)
3M-1 = "Mixed": 7-9 support points, four trump
*
viii)
Other jumps show a fit -- 9+ cards in the two suits, F1
*
ix)
Double jumps are SPL
*
x)
3N = Good raise to 4
>
b)
Over overcalls
>
i)
A jump raise is mixed (7-9 support points, 4 trump).
*
1)
A hand that would have made a preemptive raise can make a single raise, or improvise.
*
ii)
Jump shifts below 3M are strong by an UPH, fit showing by a PH
*
iii)
Jump shifts above 3M are splinters
*
iv)
1M (2m) Dbl (P) 2N = Extra values, NF
*
v)
1♠ (2♡) Dbl (P) 2N = Minimum, NF
V
vi)
1M (2x) 2M (P) 3x
V
1)
Game try with values in x, not suitable for 2N
*
1.1)
To do: Consider changing this to show shortness in m
*
2)
A general game try would bid 3M
V
vii)
1M (2x) 3x (3Y)
*
1)
Opener's pass is forcing with game interest
*
2)
Opener's double is a balanced game try with extras, usually honor third
V
viii)
1M (X) 2N (3y)
*
1)
Opener's pass is forcing with game interest
*
2)
Opener's and responder's doubles are for penalties.
V
c)
Doubles by opener after we've raised 1M to 2M
V
i)
Good balanced, usually honor third of trump:
*
1)
1M (P) 2M (2♠ or 3x) Dbl
*
2)
True even if there's no room, e.g., 1♠ P 2♠ 3♡ Dbl
*
3)
Also true when the auction starts 1M Dbl 2M
V
ii)
Penalties:
*
1)
1♡ (P) 2♡ (2♠)
P P Dbl
*
2)
1M (P) 2M (3X) P (P) Dbl
*
3)
1M (P) 2M (P) P (3X) Dbl
*
4)
1M (P) 2M (P) P (3X) P (P) Dbl
V
iii)
What's the principle involved?
*
1)
Doubles of balancing calls are for penalties
*
2)
Doubles when opener has shown no game interest are for penalties
*
3)
Opener's double in the live auction can be used both for penalties and game
*
d)
1♠ (P) 2♠ (3♢)
3♡ = last train (unsuitable for double)
>
e)
Negative doubles
V
i)
A negative double below 2M followed by 2M (or 3M) if necessary) shows a 3 card LR.
V
1)
After 1♠ (2♣) Dbl (P) 2♢
*
1.1)
With Kx KQxxx xx xxxx responder must bid 2♡ -- 2♠ would show a LR.
*
1.2)
Qx Kxxx xxx Axxx responder must pass 2♢ -- 2♠ would show a LR.
*
ii)
A negative double followed by a jump in opener's Major is GF.
>
f)
2/1 in comp
V
i)
A 2/1 in competition after a major suit opening uses the same
structure as 1♠ - 2♡ out of competition. It's forcing to NT or a preference or responder's rebid or opener's second rebid.
*
1)
A negative double followed by a Q is GF
V
ii)
Example
*
1)
1♡ (1♠) 2♣ (P)
2♡ = F1
>
F
Strong Openings
V
1)
2N (20-21) and 2♣ followed by 2N (22-24)
V
a)
Stayman, 4-suit Jacoby, Texas, Smolen
*
i)
Texas is a slam try with good trump.
*
ii)
If they double Jacoby, opener’s and responder’s redoubles are natural.
*
iii)
Responder can retransfer at the four level if they bid over Jacoby.
>
iv)
Responder can retransfer at the four level if opener pre-accepts.
*
1)
With no room to make a counter-try responder can complete his own transfer as "last train".
>
v)
If they double Texas pass shows a desire to have partner declare.
*
1)
Responder's redouble is a retransfer.
V
vi)
3♢ 3♡ 3♠ forces 3N
*
1)
4m = 5m + 5M, no slam interest
*
2)
4♡ = 55 Majors, no slam interest
*
3)
4♠= 55 Majors, forcing to slam
V
4)
Opener must bid 3♠ to pre-accept.
*
4.1)
3n -> ♣ + ♠ weak
*
4.2)
4♣ -> ♢ + ♠ weak
*
4.3)
4♢ -> ♡
*
4.4)
4♡ does not exist
*
4.5)
4♠ = 55 Majors, forcing to slam
*
4.6)
Higher bids = also 55 Majors, forcing to slam
*
vii)
3♡ 3♠ 4♡ is 55 majors, invitational to slam.
V
viii)
3♠ -> ♣ , 4♣ -> ♢
*
1)
Opener's 3N, if available, shows clubs good enough to have a chance of running the suit and a hand unsuitable for slam otherwise.
V
2)
Over opener’s 4m (only):
*
2.1)
1st suit step = RKCB
V
2.2)
2nd suit step = shortness in one of the two lower ranking suits
*
2.2.1)
A relay asks, now step 1 = shortness in om, step 2 = ♡ shortness.
*
2.3)
3rd suit step = shortness in ♠
*
2.4)
4N = Natural invite.
*
ix)
We have no way (yet) to show a hand with both minors. For now responder might start with 4N, natural and invitational.
*
x)
Note: We never use MSS
V
2)
2♣ Opening
>
a)
2♢ 0-6 any or 7+ with no kings
V
i)
2♡ forces 2♠ (Kokish)
*
1)
2N = GF balanced
*
2)
3m = ♡ + m, could be a single-suited ♡ slam try
*
3)
3♡ = Natural, NF
V
ii)
2♠ = NAT, F1
*
1)
2N = negative or waiting, could conceal support
*
2)
3X = 5 card or longer suit, or concentration of values, still 0-6
*
3)
3♠ = 3-card raise, 4+ HCP or a K
*
4)
3N = 4-card raise, 4+ HCP or a K
*
iii)
3m = NAT, F1
*
iv)
3M = Raptor, 4M with longer diamonds (usually 64)
*
v)
3N = To play, could be too strong to open 3N
V
b)
2♡ 7+, at least a King
*
i)
Opener’s rebids natural, except 3♠ = 4♠ with longer hearts.
V
c)
2♠, 3m Natural positive
*
i)
KK or KQQ or an A with 7 HCP
*
ii)
2♠ = QTxxx or better
*
d)
2N = Hearts positive
*
e)
Responders bids of 2NT and higher promise at least 2 of the top 3, preferably a six-card suit
V
f)
If opener bids a suit over any response
*
i)
A bid one higher than a raise shows 4 card support with extra values
*
ii)
4N is a SPL, replacing the bid lost to the sound raise
>
3)
3N Opening = Solid minor, three side stoppers
*
a)
4♣ = Gerber
*
b)
4♢ = Natural, forcing
*
c)
4M = Natural, to play
*
4)
4N Opening is Blackwood
>
G
Preemptive openings
>
1)
Rule of 7
*
a)
Just a guideline -- add the lengths of your two longest suit, subtract 7, then bid to that level.
>
2)
2M = weak
>
a)
Style
V
i)
Shows a decent six card suit in first and second seat.
*
1)
KJTxxx is more than good enough
*
2)
Even at favorable the hand should have some values
*
ii)
Could be a 5 card suit NV in 3rd seat
*
iii)
Could occasionally be a 5 card suit V in 3rd seat, e.g. AKJTx x xx xxxxx
V
b)
Responses
*
i)
New suit forcing by UPH
V
ii)
2N by an UPH asks for a side stopper and shows tolerance for M
*
1)
When followed by 3N it's a choice of games
*
2)
2♠ 2N 3x 3♡ = Natural, F1
*
3)
2♠ 2N 3♠ 4♡ = choice of games
*
iii)
2N by a passed hand is a game try and asks for a side A or K
*
iv)
3N is a signoff -- opener should not correct
*
v)
4m = SPL
*
vi)
4M, 4OM = to play
V
3)
3X
*
a)
4x + 1 = Kickback
V
4)
4m
*
a)
4♢ = kickback/4♣
*
b)
4N = to play
V
5)
4M
*
a)
New suits by responder are natural, to play
>
H
Slam Bidding
>
1)
GSF
*
a)
5N is never GSF unless it's a jump
*
b)
The higher we bid over 5N the less we have
*
2)
A splinter followed by key card over opener's signoff is "exclusion".
*
3)
A jump to 5♣ over 3N may be "Super Gerber".
>
4)
Strong jump shifts
*
a)
We bid naturally. We do not use Edgar's responses.
*
b)
1♠ 3♡ 4♡ is not forcing
>
c)
A JS followed by a new suit shows shortness with support for opener's suit. e.g.,
V
i)
1♠ 3♣
3♢ 4♢
*
1)
Spade support with short diamonds
>
5)
RKCB -- 0314
V
a)
If they double 4N then XX is to play, pass allows the asker to XX naturally or to show his key cards, and bids are unchanged.
*
i)
Over XX the asker can choose to show his key cards instead of sitting.
*
b)
Over a queen ask a return to our trump suit denies the queen.
*
c)
5N over 4N shows two keys cards and a void
*
d)
6x over 4N shows an odd number of key cards and a void in x
*
e)
4N followed by 5N asks for specific kings
V
f)
Gladyszak adjunct -- interference over our queen-ask after RKCB.
*
i)
Doug does not want to have an agreement. But it does no harm, since it's what we might do without discussion.
V
ii)
If they double the response to RKCB:
*
a)
Opener's relay asks for the trump queen, ignoring the double.
V
b)
Opener's pass denies a control in their suit.
*
1)
Now responder signs off if he also lacks a control, redoubles with a control but no trump queen, and bids a slam with both (or 5N with the trump queen and the king of their suit.)
V
6)
Progressive Kickback (0314) after suit agreement
*
a)
When we’ve agreed a suit and bidder is not limited.
*
b)
If the Kickback bid is a potential playable spot then the next higher bid is kickback.
*
c)
4N replaces the normal meaning of the call lost to Kickback.
V
d)
Responses
*
i)
Over the queen ask, a return to the trump suit denies the queen.
V
ii)
After the initial response:
*
1)
Over a 1 or 2 step response, the cheapest bid that’s not our trump suit asks for the trump queen. The next step that’s not our trump suit asks for specific kings.
*
2)
A new suit that's not asking for the trump queen or specific kings asks for third round control.
*
3)
5N replaces the king ask -- it asks for third round control in the suit of the king ask.
*
4)
We cannot stop in 4N.
>
iii)
If they double, XX is to play, pass shows no control, and with a control responder shows key cards.
*
1)
Opener's XX asks for key cards again
*
2)
Over a XX opener shows key cards himself if he's not willing to sit
*
iv)
If 4N is one of the asking steps then it remains asking, not an offer to play.
>
7)
When 4N is natural and invitational an acceptance is forcing to 5N, per Marty Bergen's suggestion.
*
a)
Normally bidding over 4N is an acceptance, but not always, for instance NT, xfr, completion, 4N, 5M
>
8)
Cue bidding style
*
a)
First cue shows extra values
*
b)
Cue is response is not necessary with minimum values or no slam interest
*
c)
We cue first or second round controls up the line
*
d)
First cue is usually not shortness
*
e)
If partner signs off over a cubed then 4N is not Blackwood
*
f)
4N is still Blackwood after two cues
>
g)
When they double our control-showing cue
V
i)
Pass = worried about suit — no control but extras.
V
1)
If the cue-bidder has the unprotected king he must use judgement on continuation - perhaps it can be be played from the other side. The cue-bidder may sign off or XX to show definite control and ask for further cues (tends to deny enough extras to cue below our suit or go past our suit). New suit by the cue-bidder is extras without worry about the doubled suit.
*
1.1)
The cue-bidder will normally redouble with first-round control.
*
ii)
Sign-off = no control (not even queen) and no extras.
*
iii)
New suit = not worried about the doubled suit and extras (holds first or second round control or queen)
*
iv)
XX = not worried about suit but not enough extras to cue (holds first or second round control or queen)
>
I
2♢ Opening
>
1)
Description
*
a)
The 2♢ opening shows a 3-suited hand, any 4441 or 5440, of minimum opening strength, typically 11-14 HCP.
*
b)
Strength I think of the minimum as being that of a weak notrump. 12.0 is a possible opening, and 12.5 is a mandatory opening. So open 2♢ with Kxxx --- Axxx KT9xx (14.05); pass with Qxxx Qxxx x AQJx (11.4). A 5440 with 15 HCP is normally too strong for 2♢. Something like KQxx x Axxx KQxx would be a maximum 2♢ opener.
Depending upon the vulnerability and position, you might choose to open 2♢ with slightly less strength as the best tactical maneuver.
*
c)
Five card majors: A 2♢ opening is possible when holding a five card major, but there is some danger of missing a fit in the suit, so it is definitely NOT automatic to open 2♢ instead of 1M, especially if the suit is good. 2♡ is a common response to 2♢, so the danger of missing a heart fit is only moderate. When opener has five spades and four hearts, it is almost always best to open 1♠, unless the spades are really bad. For example, Txxxx KJxx --- AKJx.
*
d)
Singleton honors A singleton king is a significant flaw. It gets 0.8 on the Kaplan count, which might be about right for suit play, but is a significant understatement for notrump. A singleton queen can cause you to misjudge also, but the degree is not normally as great. A singleton ace is probably worth about three points rather than four.
If you have K AQJx QTxx Jxxx, I don't know what the best bid is. My guess is that pass and 1NT are the leading candidates. Perhaps I'll find time to run a simulation some day, so I will have a better idea.
>
2)
Responding with a weak hand
*
a)
With less than game invitational values, responder will bid 2♡, 2♠, or 3♣ as 'pass or correct'. Opener will nearly always pass with length or correct to the NEXT STEP with shortness in responder's suit. Thus, opener bids 2♠ over 2♡, 2NT over 2♠, or 3♢ over 3♣ if short in responder's suit.
Responder then places the contract. However, sometimes responder will be surprised that opener's shortness was where it was, and can offer a game invitation by jumping. Additionally, responder can invite a game if his correction is to a suit that he could have bid at a lower level.
For example. Jx AKT9x xx Jxxx. Partner opens 2♢. He his highly likely to be short in either clubs or hearts. If he is short in hearts, then you want to play a club partscore. If he is short in clubs, then game in hearts is a lively possibility. So bid 3♣. If partner corrects to 3♢, you can bid an invitational 3♡. (If you think this hand is too strong to invite, then you could weaken it a touch, but you get the idea).
I actually had this hand come up in the IMP game. Partner passed 3♣ and then RHO (Harold Feldheim) balanced with 3♡. What a nice development! My penalty double ended the auction.
Another possible call with a weak hand is pass. This could be either long diamonds, e.g., xx xxx KJTxxx Qx. Or possibly you might judge that partner is short in your long suit, and be able to determine that diamonds is your likely best spot. e.g., Jx x Kxx Qxxxxxx.
It is not unusual to respond 2♡ with a three-card suit. Common patterns are 4333 and 5332. With two four-card suits, you should not bid a lower three-card suit, even if you have to go to the three-level. If the hands fit reasonably well, then every additional trump results in about a trick and a half more. So, it is worth being a level higher to play in a longer fit. So with xx Kxx Qxxx Qxxx, bid 3♣ in response to 2♢, rather than 2♡.
If an opponent doubles 2♢, responder's pass is to play opposite length. Opener passes with length, and redoubles with shortness.
To sign off in clubs responder can bid 3♣, then 4♣, or try passing 2♢ and correcting to 3♣ if doubled.
V
b)
Opener's bids over signoffs
*
i)
With a maximum (14 if 4441) and a fit, the 2♢ opener is allowed to 'raise' by bidding his shortness. (Over a 2♡ response, with shortness in spades, he bids 2NT). Over opener's rebid, responder places the contract, perhaps in a new suit. For example: Qxx xx Kxxxx xxx. 2♢ - 2♠ - 3♣, responder bids 3♢. With a stronger hand, he could bid an invitational 4♢.
*
ii)
Opener should be cautious about raising a 2♡ response, unless he has five-card support. A two spade response will be made on a 3-card suit much less often, so opener can be more aggressive with only 4 spades than he would be with four hearts over a 2♡ response.
>
3)
Responding with a jump to 3X
*
a)
3♢, 3♡, and 3♠ in response to 2♢ show invitational hands with a good six-card or longer suit. Opener always accepts with length, bidding his shortness along the way. With the more likely shortness, he accepts with a maximum, paying special attention to his controls and, to a lesser extent, the size of his singleton.
*
b)
3N is to play
>
4)
Responding 4m
*
a)
Preemptive, with a weak 2-suiter. Opener is expected to pass or correct.
>
5)
Responding 4M, 5m
*
a)
To play opposite presumed shortness
>
6)
Responding 2N
*
a)
2NT is the strongest response to 2♢ (whether or not an opponent intervenes). Opener indicates his shortness by bidding the suit BELOW his short suit (whether that shortness be a singleton or a void). However, if his short suit is clubs, it would crowd the auction for responder to ask further with 4♣. Therefore, if opener has short clubs and a void, he shows it directly in response to 2NT. 3NT shows five diamonds, 4♣ shows five hearts, and 4♢ shows five spades (all with a club void).
After opener's rebid of 3♣, 3♢, or 3♡, responder can force to game while asking for a 5-card suit by bidding opener's shortness (next step). (If responder wants to play game in opener's short suit, he bids it!) Opener answers in steps (with 3NT always denying a void). The first step shows five of the lowest possible ranking suit (always clubs), the second step shows five of the next highest possible suit, and the third step shows five of the highest ranking suit. The reason for this structure, is that a long minor is far more likely than a long major (especially spades), and we thereby save space.
After asking for a five-card suit (or getting a response to 2NT of 3♠, 3N, or 4♣), TRANSFER bids, and other special calls apply.
4♣ asks opener about the strength of his hand. Opener answers in steps, with the first step (4♢) showing a minimum, and the third step (4♠) showing a maximum. 
4♢ is a transfer to hearts (if opener has shown the suit) or else key card Blackwood for clubs (if opener has shown short hearts).
4♡ is a transfer to spades (if opener has shown spades), or else key card Blackwood for clubs).
4♠ is keycard Blackwood for diamonds (or clubs, if opener has shown short diamonds). 
It is virtually impossible for opener to have NO key cards. Therefore, one key card is assumed in the responses when four steps are not available. The first step shows 1, second step 2 without the queen, third step, 2 with the queen. With three key cards we will be in slam, and opener bids the fourth step to show three key cards without the trump queen.
After a transfer to a major, the NEXT STEP is key card Blackwood for that suit, with the standard responses (0 or 3; 1 or 4, etc).
The second step is a short suit slam try in opener's lower side suit, and the third step is shortness in opener's higher side suit.
The fourth step is a 'serious' slam try with no shortness, and the fifth step, 5M, is a mild slam try with no shortness.
NOTE: If opener bids 3♠, 3N, or 4♣ in response to 2NT, the transfer bids apply. You have to be on your toes, or you could end up much higher than you would like.
If responder jumps to 5m over opener's first rebid, it is a mild try for six, on general values. Doug once reached an 80% slam when he bid 6 on this sequence, and once missed a good 6 when he passed holding just a bit less than a maximum.
V
b)
Void showing responses
*
i)
If opener bids 4♣ over the first or second ask then we lose our size ask, but the transfer bids and minor suit key card asks still apply.
If opener bids 4♢, responder's 4♡ is natural and non-forcing if opener has shown hearts, otherwise it is a transfer to spades.
>
7)
2N asking (restatement of the above)
V
a)
3♣,♢,♡ = suit below shortness
V
i)
Relay asks
V
1)
3N = 4441
*
1.1)
4♣ = 3-step size ask
*
1.2)
4♢ = TXFR (or KC for ♣)
*
1.3)
4♡ = TXFR (or special KC for ♣: 1,2 w/o, 2 with)
*
1.4)
4♠ = special KC for ♢ (or ♣) : 1,2 w/o, 2 with
V
1.5)
After a transfer, responder bids by steps
*
1.5.1)
RKCB
*
1.5.2)
Short in lower side suit
*
1.5.3)
Short in higher side suit
*
1.5.4)
Serious try
*
1.5.5)
(5M) Mild try
V
2)
Show 5 card suit by steps
*
2.1)
Transfers are still on when opener’s response is below 4♢
*
b)
3♠ = 4-4-4-1
*
c)
3N = 4-4-5-0
*
d)
4♣ = 4-5-4-0
*
e)
4♢ = 5-4-4-0
V
8)
Competition
*
a)
Over any direct overcall responder's double asks opener to pass with length, while responder's non-jumps are pass or correct.
*
b)
After we respond 2N passes are forcing. Opener's doubles show trump length and his passes show shortness. Responder's doubles are for penalties opposite presumed shortness and opener must pass. We cannot defend undoubled, but we can still play a part-score.
V
c)
After 2♢ (P) 2M (3x)
*
i)
Opener's double shows shortness with extras.
*
ii)
Responder's double is for penalties opposite shortness
V
d)
2♢ (P) 2♡ (2♠)
*
i)
Opener's double shows shortness with extras, as above
*
ii)
Responder's double requires opener to pass with length
V
e)
2♢ (2X) P (P) Dbl = Shortness with extras.
*
i)
Opener never bids, even with 544.
*
f)
2♢ (P) 2M (P)
P (any) Dbl = Pen
>
J
Competitive auctions
>
1)
General principles
>
a)
In comp a return to suit is always weakest
V
i)
Even in an auction where, if we had a different agreement, we could conceivably pass it out, e.g.,
V
1)
1♠ (2♣) 3♣ (3♡)
*
1.1)
Opener's pass shows game interest, so it's forcing.
*
1.2)
Double shows balanced extras, usually Hxx in trump
>
2)
They open
V
a)
They open 1 of any suit
V
i)
We pass
V
1)
They pass
V
1.1)
(1x) P (P) 2x
*
1.1.1)
Strong one or two suiter
*
1.1.2)
Forcing to a raise or a preference
V
2)
They respond in a suit at the one level
V
2.1)
Sandwich cue-bids are natural when they've bid two suits at the one-level, even (1♡) P (1♠) 2♡, and even if they're playing five card majors.
V
2.1.1)
This is only on in these two auctions:
*
(1x) P (1y) 2x
*
(1x) P (1y) 2y
V
2.2)
Sandwich 1NT is natural, strong by an UPH
V
2.2.1)
Front of card
*
A transfer into opener's five-card suit is shortness, INV.
*
We have other ways to show GF shortness.
*
2.2.2)
Transfers into responder's suit are natural, even if responder showed five.
*
2.3)
2NT shows the unbid suits
V
3)
They respond 1NT
*
3.1)
(1x) P (1N) 2x is Michaels'
V
4)
A delayed overcall when the opponents have not found a fit shows length and strength in opener's first suit. The suit bid is often four cards, e.g.,
*
4.1)
1♣ P 1♡ P
1N 2♠
KQxx x xx AKQTxx
*
4.2)
A delayed jump overcall shows the same kind of hand, but even stronger.
V
4.3)
A delayed overcall when the opponents have found a fit is pre-balancing and/or lead directing, e.g.,
*
4.3.1)
1♣ P 1♡ P
2♡ 2♠
KQJ9x xxx xx xxx
*
5)
A double of a 1NT rebid is for takeout of responder’s suit.
V
ii)
We double
>
1)
Requirements for a takeout double of 1X
*
1.1)
544 with 8 HCP
*
1.2)
4441 with 10 HCP
V
1.3)
4432 with 11 HCP, doubleton in their suit, with 4 cards in every unbid major, or perhaps 3 good ones
*
1.3.1)
A minimum double of 1♣, at any vulnerability: AK5 K986 J964 87
*
1.4)
Tend to double with a good weak NT and support for unbid suits
V
1.5)
4333, 4 in OM with a good 13 HCP (xxx or Kxx or Axx in their suit)
*
1.5.1)
A borderline double of 1♣ or 1♢: KJx KT9x KQx Jxx
*
1.6)
4432, Hx in om with a good 13 HCP
*
1.7)
4333 with 4 in their minor OK with 14+ HCP
*
1.8)
Looser requirement for om (could be two small) when their suit is nebulous.
>
2)
(1x) Dbl (1y or 2y) Dbl
*
2.1)
Penalty, even if they respond 1♢.
*
2.2)
(1x) Dbl (JS) Dbl is PEN, typically Hxx
V
3)
(1x) Dbl (P) 1N (7-10)
(P) 2y
*
3.1)
Signoff (say a 544 8 count) if a minor suit or below their suit.
*
3.2)
Forcing otherwise, too strong to overcall
V
4)
2N = 11-13
*
4.1)
Now all doubler's suit bids are forcing
V
5)
(1X) Dbl (2X) Dbl (P) 2N
*
5.1)
Natural, not enough to overcall 1N
V
6)
(1M) Dbl (2M)
*
6.1)
Dbl: Typically fewer than 4OM
*
6.2)
2N: Better minor lebensohl, could be a competitive hand with d or H
*
6.3)
3c: Competitive -- no way to show a club invite
*
6.4)
3d, 3♡: INV
V
7)
1♡ Dbl 2♡ Dbl 3♡ Dbl = balance of power, could have stiff heart
*
7.1)
Extras, no clear direction, giving partner a chance to pass or bid 3N or ...
V
>
iii)
We overcall in a suit
iii)
Sound, Kaplan style. Tend to avoid four card overcalls.
*
1)
1N ~=7-10, 2N ~= 11-13
>
2)
(1x) 1M (dbl) 2NT = 4 card LR
V
2.1)
More generally, any jump to 2N when partner has bid 1M and we have a redouble available, e.g,
*
2.1.1)
1♣ P 1♡ 1♠
Dbl! 2N
*
2.1.2)
1x P P 1M
Dbl 2N
*
3)
(1x) 1Y (2x) 3Y = Mixed raise
V
4)
Overcaller bids opener's suit
V
4.1)
When overcaller bids opener's minor it's generally natural and NF, e.g.,
*
4.1.1)
(1x) 1y (P) 1z
(P) 2x
*
4.1.2)
(1x) 1y (P) 1N
(P) 2x
*
4.1.3)
1♢ 1♡ 1♠ 2♣
P 2♢
V
4.1.4)
This is not true, though, when advancer makes a forcing bid at the 2 level:
*
a)
(1♢) 1M (P) 2♣
(P) 2♢ = Artificial, forcing to game.
V
iv)
We overcall 1NT directly 15+ to 18 HCP
>
1)
Responser passes
*
1.1)
Front of card.
>
1.2)
A transfer into opener's five-card suit is shortness, INV.
*
1.2.1)
We have other ways to show GF shortness.
*
1.3)
Stayman followed by 2OM is an unbalanced 5-card invite
V
2)
Responder bids
*
2.1)
System on when they bid 2c.
*
2.2)
When responder raises advancer's double is negative.
V
2.3)
When responder bids a new suit advancer's double is negative.
*
2.3.1)
When the new suit is artificial, not promising a particular suit, advancer's double shows the suit doubled.
*
2.3.2)
When the new suit is a transfer, advancer's double shows cards. He can make a penalty double by passing first, then doubling.
*
2.4)
Advancer can bid opener's suit naturally.
*
2.5)
2N and higher are transfer lebensohl, around responder's suit if he's shown one or opener's Major suit otherwise.
*
2.6)
We use DONT runouts over a double of our 1N or 2N overcall, XX shows a 1-suiter
*
5)
We overcall 4N: The two lower unbid suits
>
vi)
Direct cue-bid is Michaels'
V
1)
Over 1m it could be any strength
*
1.1)
2N is a mild invite
*
1.2)
Raising the cue-bid is a strong invite
V
2)
Over 1M it shows a "good or bad" hand.
V
2.1)
Definitions of good and bad
*
2.1.1)
A good hand is one that would risk missing a game by overcalling.
*
2.1.2)
A bad hand is one that would not be strong enough to make a game try if it overcalled and partner made a single raise.
*
2.2)
2N asks for the minor
*
2.3)
2N followed by 3M is a game try
*
3)
A jump to 3M shows four trump and is primarily preemptive
*
4)
When we're doubled pass is to play, new suits are natural, and redouble asks partner to pick a suit or show his second suit if it's undisclosed.
V
vii)
We bid 2N over a double of 2M
*
1)
A free 2N bid opposite an UPH X is “better minor” lebensohl, e.g. (1M) Dbl (2M) 2N
V
2)
Involuntary 2N bids are scrambling or "pick a suit" when they've raised 1M to 2M.
*
2.1)
(1M) P (2M) Dbl
*
2.2)
(1m) P (1M) P
(2M) Dbl (P) 2N
*
2.3)
1x (1M) P (2M)
Dbl (P) 2N
V
viii)
We make a jump overcall
*
1)
Advancer's jump shift is lead directing, except for a jump to game by an UPH.
>
b)
They open a “could be short” 1m
V
i)
We pretend their bid is natural
*
1)
3m is preemptive, as usual
*
ii)
A takeout double could be 4-4-2-3
>
c)
They open 1m
V
i)
3m is preemptive unless 1m showed 5 ("4+, usually 5+" counts as 5)
*
1)
In that case it asks for a stopper, as over 1M
V
ii)
(1m) Dbl (1N)
*
1)
Dbl = the other minor plus a major
*
2)
2m = both majors, competitive
>
iii)
(1m) 1♡ (1♠)
*
1)
Dbl = Snapdragon, typically 5 cards in the unbid suit and tolerance for overcall’s suit
*
2)
2m = Cue, 3♡